- Live loads based on the specific type of use
- Superimposed dead loads (floor finishes, non-structural partitions, ceilings, and services)
- Fixed equipment loads
- Soil self-weight
- Dead load or self-weight of the structure
- Lateral wind loads that should be distributed at center of mass
- Soil, surcharge, and water loads
- Notional horizontal loading (loading that are used for structural stability of column and walls)
- Seismic loads
Some loads that affect the internal stresses of the structural members are not considered in design calculations include temperature, expansion, shrinkage, contraction, inertial, and support movement forces.
LC1: 1.4DL + 1.6LL
LC2: 1.4DL + 1.4WL
LC3: 1.2DL + 1.2Ll + 1.2WL
DL = Dead Load
LL = Live Load
WL = Wind Load
Note: Superimposed dead loads (SDL) should have the same factor of safety as that of dead loads.
Superimposed Dead Load
Floor finish (screed) 50mm 1.2 kPa
Floor finish (screed) 50mm 2.0 kPa
Raised floor 0.5 kPa
False ceiling 0.5 kPa
Ceiling and Services 0.5 kPa
Partitions 1.0 kPa (minimum)
Cavity walls made out of masonry
Steel wall framing
Concrete tiles0.3 kPa
Asphalt for insulation
Metal outer covering1 kPa
Wind uplift for metal decks1 kPa
Active soil pressures are generally used for soil load calculations. Active pressures are applied loads induced by the soil onto the contained environment. Passive pressures are forces induced by the soil's resistance to applied loads. Passive pressures are generally not conservative for calculations. This is because there will be a worst case scenarios if the soil mass is removed or when an empty space develops between the wall and the soil due to hydration. There will be no passive resistance due to lack of forces induced by soil resistance and there will only be passive resistance until the wall moves towards and is in direct contact with the soil for the soil to resist the wall mass. Constants used to determine soil pressures include the angle of repose and soil/wall friction.
Soil load calculations are often calculated for soil pressure induced onto retaining walls and basement walls. Here are some typical loads used:
Uniform surchage load = 10 kPa
Soil load = 20 kPa using dead load factors
Hydrostatic water pressure should also be designed for, assuming it acts onto ⅓ height of the wall. However, full hydrostatic head will be used for soils with high water table.
Propped retaining wall Ko = 0.7
Overconsolidated clays Ko = 1.5
Overconsolidated sands Ko = 1.0
Pressures that need to be considered when constructing retaining walls, basement walls or any other substructures include the following.
- Earth pressure
- Water pressure (accounting for extreme flood conditions, buoyancy where groundwater is taken the full basement depth)
- Surcharge from adjacent structures
Common uses include water tanks and basement walls.
Normally, 2.5 kPa should be used for uniformly distributed loads for a car parking area and 5 kpa should be used for uniformly distributed loads for a commercial vehicle area.